science of human needs
Based on existing scientific theories of needs (some of which are briefly outlined below), we can classify needs from the point of view of priority into two main categories .
1.basic(biological) needs: water, breathing, eating, and the need for safety. Meeting these needs have highest priority for humans (highest priority of this needs agree all theory of needs)
2.high(psychological) needs: intellectual needs eg. the need for autonomy, status, belonging … It isn’t single shared scientific opinion on the mental needs (ie. list of higher needs and their priority) so it leads to multiple theories of psychological needs. Merging some prominent psychological theory needs as SDT, Skinner, Maslow and neuropsychological theories David Rock SCARF model, claim this common needs:
S-status, C-certainity, A-autonomy, R-related, F-fairness, Master . The needs are dependent mainly on character traits of the person, childhood, surrounded people and society. Individual transform mental needs into goals and expectations.
Relations between the needs
Needs have different intensity and the different relationships between them so one needs may support / decrease of other needs. eg. through financial freedom (mental need) can meet the other higher needs(personal growth through travelling, access to expensive sources of information) but it can reduce the need for belonging(mostly individual must sacrifice some time for friends, family).
stores are stored information about the needs and how arise
Man has information about basic(biological)needs stored in DNA, but there isn’t stored informations about higher(menta) needs. Higher needs are created throughout life with aim to support basic needs().
Man has a DNA stores information about the basic (biological) needs, but not in the genes stored information about higher (mental) needs but creates higher needs throughout life in order to support the basic needs encoded in DNA (at least so far I haven’t found scientific research that would confirm information about the mental needs stored in the DNA).
e.g. the need for belonging: man see that belonging to some group increase probability of satisfication basic needs -> it create “need of belonging” in the man memmory.
human life imitate that if belongs to the group so it has a higher chance of meeting the vital (biological) needs created by the brain of an individual “need for togetherness” which it stores them in memory.
-example1: the individual has need to survive encrypted in DNA, there is also encrypted need
to intake energy and nutrients -> man imitate that group is more likely to catch a prey compared to catch it itself->so man naturaly create need belonging to group because increase probability get energy and nutrients and finally survive->man optimise actions for belonging to group.
-example2: sex belongs to one of the biological needs. Man see that belonging to group and strong position in this group increase chance to meet this biological need -> so man naturally optimize behaviour in order to satisfy this need.
selected scientific approaches to human needs and motivations
Scientific research about needs (and motivation) can be simply divided into 2.generations.
1. psychological approaches
research of needs based on psychological level observations of behavior without answare “why” questions ie. “black box” approach( mainly behaviorism) or “why” questions are answared on psychological bases.
2.neuropsychological approaches exploit and dissect knowledges from previous 1.generation plus answare “why” questions ie. “white box” approach. This “why” proofs are based mostly on (neuro)biological bases. This approaches are done mostly by co-operating psychologists and neuroscientists.
1st generation psychological approaches
behaviorist theory form conclusions based on observation of how a person reacts to certain stimuli, without examining why it reacts. It’s based on the fact that being is motivated by gaining rewards or avoiding punishment (called sticks and carrots motivation).
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs: He claims that person is motivated act with aim of satisfy needs and needs have their priority. He introduced famous maslow needs hierarchy, where hierarchically lower needs have higher priority than hierarchically higher needs.
Every person have subjective strength of this needs and between needs are complicated relatinships. The priority needs may also change over time (e.g. person in flow state may continue to perform the work in short term and ignore hungry in spite of fact that hunger is hierarchically lower need than flow state).
Herzberg’s 2factor theory Herzberg distinguishes between:
Motivators (operational challenges, recognition) – satisfaction of these needs is motivating
hygiene factors (wages, safety) – satisfication of this needs don’t motivate but their unsatisfication demotivate.
Drive reduction theory:
Long-term dissatisfaction of need increase their intensity and motivates the individual to action that will satisfy this need(eg. if a person is hungry then only hardly will satisfy mental needs from the longer view point, until ingest energy and nutrients so in this way satisfy hunger need)
Temporal Motivation Theory: combines several motivational theories of Maslow, SDT, skiner, drive theory.
2nd Generation neuropsychological approaches
Self determination theory: is currently the most widely used motivational theory. SDT divides motivation on intrinsic (if man enjoy the activity itself) and extrinsic (if man act primarily due reward / punishment). It’s elaborated in more detail in the scientific motivation
David rock scarf model: it’s famous neuropsychological approach ehavily used in neuroleadership.
There are also other interesting approaches eg. tonny robins 6 human needs and others